Lakes are the area of variable size filled with water that contain the basin and surrounded by lands. The lakes are considered as a very important natural heritage from diverse perspectives like water cycle, biological diversity, economic and social fame, tourism and biogeochemical cycle. Moreover, history reveals that the development of human civilizations is closely related to lakes. In addition, they are the important habitat for amphibian as well as aquatic lives.
Lakes/wetlands are highly valued that provide the services for basic of life ranging from food such as fish, fruits and vegetables, fodder, water to medicinal and decorative plants. In addition, lakes/wetlands are important for religious and spiritual values, as they are the sacred place for festivals, sports, beauty and recreational activities, source of pleasure, formal and informal education can also be obtained from the lakes. Lakes and wetlands constitute important habitat and food resources for a diverse array of fish, bird, aquatic life and wildlife. Lakes are highly valued for lacustrine deposit, pollination, water reuse and purification. Therefore, they are often called as kidney of the nature. In addition, Lakes/wetlands harmonize temperature, precipitation and absorbing green house gases to moderate the climate change, accumulate water, soil and nutrient for agriculture and manage flood, drought and landslide to control natural disaster and play a significant role to maintain and balance the ecological system.
Lakes are naturally formed as well as artificially constructed. The life span of different lakes vary from hundred to thousand or longer years. All lakes are temporary over a span of time as some changes occur on them. Loss, degradation, change and fragmentation of lakes are caused by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Climate change, outbursts of lakes due to landslides and siltation, watershed dried out are some natural factors whereas encroachment and unplanned land used are anthropogenic causes for the degradation of the lakes which in turn disrupt the entire ecosystem.